Common materials of steel
A steel product, commonly made of rolled steel, bar or circular shapes. Designed for tough, durable and cost-effective applications, the steel products that come in different forms and sizes are indispensable in today’s world. Common materials of steel used in various applications are: rivets & fasteners, tubes, pipes, columns, handrails, hinges, locks, handles, drawer slides, plates & pins, nails, hinges & pedals, springs & gears, framework members, clamps, plates & sheets, sheaves, sheet metal, heat-treating solutions, die-casting, forging, alloy steel, sheet metalworking, fastening & welding, soldering, forging & shaping, & forming. Also used as the main building material, steel is versatile in its use and can also be molded into complex shapes, such as round, square, cylindrical and hexagonal.
Alloys of steel are those in which different chemical compounds or minerals are united to produce a strong, durable and lightweight material. Usually austenite, martine, ferric, chromium, manganese, zinc, boron, calcium and nickel alloys are mixed to produce steel. Hardness is increased by adding chromium and nickel. Tempering is also done through combining these elements. The strength and toughness of materials depend mainly on the carbon content of the alloy. Higher carbon content metals withstand impact, vibration and wear and tear better than those with low carbon parts.
The traditional way of producing steel was through the use of steel ore
The ore is first heated until it becomes soft (at which time it is known as hot-rolled steel) and then is moved to a huge forge. At this stage the ore is beaten to produce the desired shape. The forged ingots are then sent to manufacturers who transform them into finished goods. Steel pipes are made of ingots with varying degrees of carbon.
Another important development in the 18th century was the development of the crucible steel. A crucible is a heavy metal frame having a thin layer of metal between two strips of metal. This layer, known as the bottom steel bar or the flange, has an external metallic edge that can be bent into a curved shape by means of an external energy source such as by welding or through a mechanical roll forming machine. In the case of crucibles, the bars can be bent or shaped into different shapes, including a flat circular bar or a conical spiral bar. The flat bar is known as the ingot while the spiral bar is called the cup or cylinder. The internal metallic edge of the cup or cylinder is known as the flange.
A variety of different alloys of steel are available in the market
These include the following: cold rolled steel, hot rolled steel, mild steel, high carbon steel, mild steel forgings, flat steel, low carbon steel, high carbon steel, stainless steels and others. Steel alloy manufacturing is a complex process where various steps are taken to convert raw iron into steel products. One of these steps is to add carbon into the steel to increase the alloying elements. Carbon is also added to soften the steel and increase the stress and tensile strength.
During the transformation induced plasticity of high strength steel, the alloying elements get transformed into different forms. These various forms are known as alloys. During this transformation, the alloying elements are changed to give the steel distinct physical properties, the most prominent of which is the ability to resist corrosion. The alloys are used for various applications. Some of them are combat ready, light duty, transport ready, industrial wear resistant, precision, decorative, high strength steel, cold rolled, hot rolled and many more. Hence, steel alloying has become an inevitable process for all types of industries.