We all know that insulators are good conductors of electricity while conductors are not so good because they conduct only the current while the electric current flows through. But we don’t really understand how they work. It’s really pretty simple actually. All electric currents go through conducting materials. In short the more conductive the material the better. Let’s look at some examples of different kinds of materials used in construction.
When you look at insulators, you will notice that some conductors are made up of a mixture of two different types of material. The most common kinds of materials used in making insulators are polyethylene (PE), nylon, and polystyrene (PS). There are other less common types of conductors, like graphite and certain kinds of plastics. Polyethylene and polystyrene are the most popular since they are low cost and easy to use for making insulators.
Another example of low-cost polyethylene insulation is Styrofoam. Styrofoam is usually used for things that have to be lightweight like snowboard decking or water beds, but it can also be used to insulate homes and other buildings. A Styrofoam board is just a piece of board with a negative or positive charge on the bottom.
Now let’s take a look at how conductors work. When a wire is insulated by a conductive material, a series of interconnected loops are formed between the two parts. The bottom part has electrons, and the top part has free electrons. As the wire moves through the material, it makes one loop and then another loop with more free electrons.
One interesting thing about conductors is that they are made up of atoms, and atoms are made up of different types of energy. The atoms can be in a high or low state of energy. Since most conductors have both electrons and free electrons, they are called conductor metals. There are some exceptions, and some metals, like gold, are actually made up of a mixture of several different metals. Since conductors have atoms with both a positive and negative charge, there is always a way for an electron to escape from a conductive material.
The more free electrons that escape, the more conductivity there will be. So the more electrons that escape, the higher the conductivity. And that means that if you want to insulate something, you need a higher amount of conductivity. To insulate something with a lower amount of conductivity, you need a less number of atoms with an electron. One example of a material with a very high number of electrons but a low number of free electrons is plastic.